800 BC The Etruscans establish cities from northern to central (in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany) Italy. It began the Roman monarchy which is a land-holding aristocracy and the Roman kingdom.
753 BC It is believed that King Romulus date the foundation for Rome. Romulus is the first of the seven kinds of Rome.
616 BC Tarquinius Priscus was Rome's first Etruscan kings.
500 BC Beginning of the Roman Republic after the Etruscan were expelled from Rome.
The Roman Republic where the ancient Roman civilization operated as a republic with a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate.
73 BC Slave uprising led by the gladiator called Spartacus against the Roman Republic. A factional split between those under Spartacus, who wished to escape over the Alps to freedom, and those under Crixus, who wished to stay in southern Italy to continue raiding and plundering of Italy.
64 BC Pompey, political leader of the Roman Republic, annex Syria a Roman province and captured Jerusalem (in modern day Israel).
60 BC Julius Caesar with Pompey and Crassus formed the First Triumvirate.
The Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman Republic was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls.
45 BC Julius Caesar led an army with plunged the Roman Republic into civil war. Julius Caesar defeats Pompey to to become the first dictator of Roman Republic and control the entire Italian peninsula and Spain. After his defect, Pompey fled to Egypt where he was killed and his head cut off so it could be sent to Caesar.
44 BC Julius Caesar assassinated and saw the formation of the Second Triumvirate which is a political alliance amongst Marc Antony, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian (Caesar Augustus).
31 BC Antony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian (Caesar Augustus).
27 BC End of the Roman Republic when Octavian (Caesar Augustus) became the first Roman emperor of the Roman Empire. And it is they begin of the infamous Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean. It lasted for 500 years.
AD 0 The birth of Jesus Christ in the in the Roman province of Jerusalem.
AD 14 Death of Octavian (Caesar Augustus) and Tiberius (Octavian stepson) becomes emperor.
AD 33 Crucifixion of Jesus in the Roman province of Jerusalem by the Romans and the origin of Christianity.
AD 41 Caligula is killed and Claudius proclaimed Emperor.
AD 54 Emperor Claudius is murdered and Nero is proclaimed Emperor.
AD 64 Fire destroyed much of Rome - the Christians are blamed for the destruction.
AD 68 The death of Nero ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
AD 75 The Roman emperors start to build the Coliseum in Rome.
AD 180 Commodus succeeds his father Marcus Aurelius and gains imperial power.
AD 305 Constantine becomes the first Christian emperor.
AD 380 Christianity is declared the sole religion of the Roman Empire by Theodosius.
AD 476 Death of Romulus Augustus the last Roman Emperor and saw the end of the Roman Empire. Romulus was deposed by Flavius Odoacer who was an officer of the Roman Army. Odoacer became the first barbarian King of Italy. Also known as "Dux Italiae" Era.
AD 493 to AD 553 Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy Era.
AD 553 Italy was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, or the Eastern Roman Empire, centered on the capital of Constantinople (modern day Istanbul). The Byzantium was oriented towards Greek culture, characterised by Christianity.
AD 568 to AD 814 Kingdom of the Lombards Era, some areas of Italy still under the rule of the Byzantine Empire.
AD 781 to AD 963 Frankish Kingdom of Italy Era.
AD 962 to AD 1648 Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire Era.
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire.
AD 1527 Rome was sacked by mutinous troops (14,000 German mercenary and 6,000 Spanish) under the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, who was greatly embarrassed and powerless to stop his troops. This event also marked the end of the Roman Renaissance.
AD 1648: Three Italian Kingdoms of Sardinia, Naples and Sicily.
AD 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte of France declared himself the emperor of Italy.
AD 1805 to AD 1814 Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy Era.
AD 1861 to AD 1946 Kingdom of Italy Era. In 1870, Rome joins a united Italy.
AD 1929 Lateran Treaty recongises the Vatican as a seperate state.